I was born in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada from a large extended family of parents, four sisters and one brother, and many relatives. I came to the Los Angeles, California with three nurse friends soon after graduating from my diploma program at St. Joseph Hospital in my home town (now the longest running active hospital alumni association in Canada. (Canada no longer has any diploma or associate degree programs for RN-BSN programs). After working in southern California in primarily emergency, critical care, and maternal-child departments, I was interested in continuing my education. I began my studies at the University of Colorado, Colorado Springs while working at one of the hospitals, moving to Denver to the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center to complete my BSN followed by my MSN. Dr. Madeleine Leininger was my mentor in nursing and anthropology. In the interim, I became a citizen of the United States, and was commissioned as a First Lieutenant in the United States Air Force (USAF), first in the Air National Guard and then in the Reserves. During my initial Air Force career, I went to flight school at the USAF School of Aerospace Medicine and served as a flight nurse during the Viet Nam conflict. I followed with assignments in education, administration, and aerospace nursing. Still drawn by the wonders of the Pacific Ocean, I moved back to California in 1969, this time to San Francisco, and began my teaching career first at the University of California San Francisco, School of Nursing, and then at the University of San Francisco, School of Nursing. Family needs called me home to Hamilton in 1973, and I was able to work at McMaster University, School of Nursing in the nurse practitioner program using a very innovative educational model featuring the problem-based and simulated patient learning approaches. At the same time, I pursued a MA degree in Anthropology focusing on political and cultural anthropology. In 1977 I came back to the United States to participate in the first PhD program in Transcultural Nursing at the University of Utah under the mentorship of Dr. Leininger. I met my future husband, Jim Droesbeke soon after going to Utah, and we were married August 18, 1979 and had a very happy marriage until his untimely death from cancer in 2001. I completed my dissertation in 1981 wherein I discovered the Theory of Bureaucratic Caring from research studying the meaning of caring in the complex hospital organizational culture. The theory is now receiving recognition because of the focus on phenomena related to complex systems--spiritual-ethical, economic, political, technological and legal caring. While teaching at the University of Colorado, School of Nursing in the PhD program beginning in 1984, and working with Dr. Jean Watson, I was able to advance qualitative human science research methods, particularly phenomenology, the philosophies of science, transcultural health care, and philosophy of nursing and human caring. My program of research beginning with the advancement of the Bureaucratic Caring Theory continued studying technological and economic caring. In 1989, I came to Florida Atlantic University first as the Christine E. Lynn Eminent Scholar and then as a Professor assisting in the development of caring in many parts of the world, teaching, service, and conducting research. I continued teaching in the summer PhD program at the University of Colorado. I was promoted to the rank of Colonel in the USAF accomplishing a research career in aerospace nursing and retiring in 1999. At FAU, I had the honor of teaching graduate students and assisted in launching the new Doctor of Nursing Science (now PhD) program. At FAU, I received many federal research grants working with my co-principal investigator, Dr. Marian Turkel. We studied economics and human caring and complex organizations. I also had the privilege of advancing my education at Georgetown University, Kennedy Institute of Ethics, and the sciences of complexity at FAU. As the Yingling Visiting Scholar at Virginia Commonwealth University, I was able to teach qualitative research methods and assist many PhD students. For many years, chapters and articles and presentations have captured caring as the essence of nursing, especially focusing on transcultural caring, the economic impact on caring, and complex relational caring dynamics in nursing. I am a Transcultural Nursing Scholar and certified (CTN-A) by the Transcultural Nursing Society. As a Professor Emeritus at Florida Atlantic University, The Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing, I have written the book, Transcultural Caring Dynamics in Nursing and Health Care, and I am a co-editor of the book with Dr. Alice Davidson, Nursing, Caring and Complexity for Human-Environment Well-Being. I hope to continue writing in the areas of phenomenology, and complex relational caring dynamics and the Theory of Bureaucratic Caring. At this time, I have contributed to the core curriculum published by Sage Publications and the Transcultural Nursing Society for certification purposes with a model of transcultural caring, and qualitative research methods. I am pleased to continue research and publications with my colleague, Dr. Turkel, and to assisting graduate students and other professionals with the study of caring and transcultural nursing.


Dr. Ray currently serves as a Doctoral dissertation advisor as needed. She has been active in teaching both Masters and Doctoral level courses at the Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing between 1990-2004 in addition to teaching at other institutions upon request.

Recent Publications

  • Ray, M. (2010). Transcultural caring dynamics in nursing and health care. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company.
  • Davidson, A. & Ray, M. (Eds.) (2010). Nursing, caring, complexity for human-environment well-being. Springer Publishing Company.
  • Watson, J. & Ray, M. (Eds.) (1988). The ethics of care and the ethics of cure: Synthesis in chronicity. New York: National League for Nursing. (Released, 1989).

Chapters in Books (National/International)

  • Ray, M. (in press). Complexity sciences and evidence-based research and practice in nursing and health care: Can the human science approach of phenomenology reconcile the challenges? In A. Davidson & M. Ray (Eds.), Nursing, caring and complexity for human-environment well-being. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
  • Ray, M. & Turkel, M. (in press). Complex relational caring dynamics in organizational culture. In A. Davidson & M. Ray (Eds.). Nursing, caring and complexity for human-environment well-being. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
  • Ray, M. & Turkel, M. (in press). The theory of bureaucratic caring. In M. Smith & M. Parker (Eds.), Nursing theory and nursing practice (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: FA Davis Company.
  • Ray, M. & Turkel, M. (2009). Relational caring questionnaires. In J. Watson (Ed.). Assessing and measuring caring in nursing and health sciences (2nd ed.). New York: Springer Publishing Company.
  • Turkel, M. & Ray, M. (2009). Caring for not-so-picture-perfect patients: Ethical caring in the moral community of nursing. In R. Locsin & M. Purnell (Eds.). A contemporary nursing process: The (un)bearable weight of knowing in nursing (pp. 225-249). New York: Springer Publishing Company.
  • Ray, M. (2007). Technological caring as a dynamic of complexity in nursing practice. In A.Barnard & R. Locsin (Eds.). Perspectives on technology and nursing practice. United Kingdom: Palgrave MacMillan.
  • Ray, M. (2006). The theory of bureaucratic caring. In M. Parker (Ed.). Nursing theories and nursing practice. (2nd ed.) Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company.
  • Ray, M.A. (2001). The theory of bureaucratic caring. In M. Parker (Ed.), Nursing theories and nursing practice.
  • Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company.
  • Ray, M.A. (2001). Complex culture and technology: Toward a global caring communitarian ethics of nursing. In R. Locsin (Ed.), Concerning Technology and Caring. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group.
  • Ray, M. (2000). Transcultural assessment of older adults. In Koch, S. & Garratt, S. (Eds.) Assessing Older Adults: A Workbook. Australia:
  • Ray, M.A. & Turkel, M.C. (2000). Ethnic and cultural considerations in advanced practice nursing. In L. Dunphy & J. Winland-Brown (Eds.), Advanced Practice Nursing: A Holistic Approach. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company.

In addition to the numerous books that Dr. Ray has contributed to she also has publications in Journal Articles, both nationally and internationally, articles in newspapers, and a bountiful amount of abstracts & posters that have been presented.



  • 2008 Lifetime Achievement Award, Life Time Member International Association for Human Caring, University of North Carolina, Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina, May 2008.
  • 2007 Distinguished Alumna Award, University of Utah, College of Nursing, Salt Lake City, Utah, May 3, 2007.
  • 2005, Honorary Degree, Nevada State College, Henderson, Nevada, May 2005 (First Honorary Degree awarded at Nevada State College).
  • Who's Who in the World. Selected for 2008, 2009, 2010. Marquis Who's Who, New Providence, New Jersey.
  • Cambridge Who's Who of Executive Women and Nursing and Health Care, Selected 2007. New York, New York.
  • Who's Who in American Nursing, 1990, 1991, 1996, 2007, 2008. Marquis Who's Who, New Providence, New Jersey.
  • Who's Who in America, Selected for 2007, 2008. Marquis Who's Who, New Providence, New Jersey.
  • Who's Who in American Education, 2006, 2007-2008. Marquis Who's Who, New Providence, New Jersey.
  • Who's Who in Medicine and Healthcare, 2008-2009, 2009-2010. Marquis Who's Who, New Providence, New Jersey.
  • 2005 Research Award for Excellence in Research at Florida Atlantic University from Dr. Lemanski, VP of Research, Department of Sponsored Research, Florida Atlantic University
  • 2005 Transcultural Nursing Scholar. The International Transcultural Nursing Society. Awarded at Baruch College, New York City, October 2005.
  • Sustaining Fellow 2005, Applied Anthropological Association of the American Anthropology Association, Fellow, June 1989. Sustaining Fellow.
  • Research Consultant Recognition for Service Award: Holy Cross Hospital, Nursing Research Council, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 2002-2004, Awarded December 2004.
  • Distinguished Teacher of the Year, Academic Year 1999-2000, College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, awarded March 2000.


  • Federal Nursing Service Essay Award, Association of Military Surgeons of the United States (AMSUS), Las Vegas, Nevada, November 8, 2000.
  • Certificate of Retirement as Colonel from the United States Air Force Reserve, Nurse Corps, Washington, D.C., issued February 6, 1999.


  • Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Transcultural Nursing, University of Utah College of Nursing Salt Lake City, Utah, 1981
  • Master of Arts (MA), Anthropology, McMaster University Hamilton, Canada, 1978
  • Master of Science (MS), Maternal/Child Nursing, University of Colorado School of Nursing Denver, Colorado 1969
  • Bachelor of Science (BSN), Nursing, University of Colorado School of Nursing Denver, Colorado 1968
  • Nursing Diploma (Registered Nurse), St. Joseph's Hospital School of Nursing Hamilton, Canada 1958

Certifications/Advanced Practice

  • Transcultural Nursing Certification (CTN) -October 1988 (Recertified 1994 and 2000, CTN-A, 2009)
  • Nursing Administration, Advanced (CNAA) -December 1991 (Recertified 1996-2001-2006)
  • Nurse Practitioner (Honorary), Nurse Practitioner Assn, Ontario, Canada -January 1975 and on-going

Fellowships Awarded / Scholar Positions

  • Sustaining Fellow, Society
  • for Applied Anthropology, 2007
  • Alberta Heritage Foundation
  • Visiting Scholar, University of Alberta, 2005
  • Yingling Visiting Scholar,
  • Virginia Commonwealth University, 1995
  • Christine E. Lynn Eminent
  • Scholar, Florida Atlantic University, 1989-1994
  • Visiting Scholar Fellowship, Australian Colleges/Universities, 1990.
    • Phillip Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    • Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.
    • Edith Cowan University, Perth, Western Australia.
    • Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia.
  • Research Fellowship, Ministry of Health, Ontario, Canada, 1977-1980.